Page tree

Versions Compared

Key

  • This line was added.
  • This line was removed.
  • Formatting was changed.

...

  • With the use of GPS technology, the Geofencing feature creates a virtual geographic boundary for no-flight zones. This limits the drones flying range from entering to particular areas.[2]
  • The Fail-Safe feature ensures safe landing at the starting point in case of low battery level or communication breakup. Some UAVs can also be recalled manually with a return-to-home or coming-home button.[2]
  • With high end UAVs a redundancy of flight controller cards, batteries or navigation sensors assures save landing in case of malfunction of one component.[2]
  • Anti-Collision functions are very important for future drone permissions. Many functions are based on 3D-camera-technology for visual detection of obstacles. Ultrasound technology is also used for obstacle detection in closer distances. Sometimes Light Detection AND Ranging (LiDAR) Systems are combined with UAVs. This Laser-based technology suits well for mapping and 3D-modelling tasks. Some drone manufacturers even apply plastic cages or grids around the propellers as a mechanical protection in case of physical contact.[2]

...

Most techniques use well advanced camera technology for visual testing. A research study in Xinjiang, China, used a UAV in order to improve the efficiency of pavement inspection. A six-wing UAV equipped with a multispectral camera microminiature multiple camera array system flied along the road at the height of 25 m above the ground level. Multispectral pavement images were acquired and used to distinguish between the normal pavement and pavement damages (e.g., cracks and potholes) using Machine Learning algorithms. This study indicates that a UAV remote sensing system offers a new tool for monitoring asphalt road pavement condition, which can be used as decision support for road maintenance practice.[3]

...

UAVs provide an excellent investigative tool for detecting heat leakages and their surveillance using high-resolution thermal cameras. A research team in Izmir, Turkey, developed a low cost optimal hexacopter for surveillance and heat leakage detection. With analyzing Infrared Thermography images by an image processing toolkit and illustrating the heat leakages in the pictures, a solution for important needs in civil applications like search and rescue, surveillance and heat loss mapping for buildings can be found. Also the total waste of money due to heat leakages of buildings can be calculatet.[5]

...

There are many applications for Ground Penetrating Radar like locating pipelines or cables or investigating sediment and soil structures. A research team in Spain introduced a novel airborne system for subsurface sensing and imaging applications for applications such as landmine detection or archeological surveys. The system consists of a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, including a high-accuracy positioning system. Metallic and dielectric targets were buried in a sand-soil mix and radar measurements with the UAV were conducted. The results of these flight tests prove the feasibility of the system to detect both metallic and dielectric targets. Furthermore these measurements could be coherently combined to improve the radar image resolution.[6]

...

Another noncontact inspection method is using acoustic irradiation induced vibration and Laser Vibrometry. This method is used for surface inspection of buildings or structures. With mounting a sound source on an UAV, the sound source itself can be brought close to the measured surface without the problems of angle dependence. A study in Japan confirmed the feasability of this method. A planar speaker, a sighting laser and a laser range finder were mounted on an UAV underside. Delamination defects of outer wall tiles could be detected even if the UAV itself was swinging at flight.[7]

...