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An optical shot is taken to get an overview and locate the cracks. To take these shots and monitor buildings a Vertical take-off and Landing (VTOL) is an option.[4] The navigation of the VTOL is mostly done by GPS, with additional support from a 3D magnetic sensor.[2] The visual building inspection via an unmanned aircraft vehicle is divided into two steps: data acquisition during the in-flight and the digital post processing.[2] After the optical shot, algorithms look for similar picture content structures and pattern recognition is used to combine the pictures through matching points.[1] The generated pictures are “stitched” together to obtain a full 2D image where damage and cracking can be spotted.[2]  Algorithms have been programmed to automatically detect cracks in high-resolution areas down to the millimeter range.[2] There are two ways highlighting and extracting the cracks


The 270 ° scanner moves autonomously over horizontal surfaces, generating a digital environmental map.[3] This map contains a common coordinate system where every data package is saved with the exact position. The map can be used for a detailed picture or evaluation model in order to predict the lifecycle costs or construction measures.[3]

Image Modified

Illustration 1 "BETOSCAN - an instrumented mobile

robot system for the diagnosis

of reinforced concrete Floors"


The autonomous robot RABIT was designed to detect reinforcing corrosion, delamination and decreased concrete quality on bridges roadway slaps.[3]  RABIT provides sensors for radar, ultrasonic surface waves, impact echo and electrical resistance measurement. The RABIT moves completely autonomous over the surface, due to a Global Positioning System (GPS). A software for online data analysis and data fusion generates a map where all the damaged spots are collected.[1] The visualization software presents all information in a common three-dimensional space in order to mark the different degrees of damage. [1]


4.4 Ground penetration radar and development of a 3D model

The Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) measurements can be used to create a 3D visualization.[5] In order to create a 3D Representation out of the analyzed georadar data it is first converted into a JPG file with georeferences. Those Layers with height information where transferred to Polylines. This polylines where transformed to a 3D point cloud. This cloud is converted to a mesh generation, which leads to a 3D visualization.[5]