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An optical shot is taken to get an overview and locate the cracks. To take these shots and monitor buildings a Vertical take-off and Landing (VTOL) is an option.[4] The navigation of the VTOL is mostly done by GPS, with additional support from a 3D magnetic sensor.[2] The visual building inspection via an unmanned aircraft vehicle is divided into two steps: data acquisition during the in-flight and the digital post processing.[2] After the optical shot, algorithms look for similar picture content structures and pattern recognition is used to combine the pictures through matching points.[1] The generated pictures are “stitched” together to obtain a full 2D image where damage and cracking can be spotted.[2]  Algorithms have been programmed to automatically detect cracks in high-resolution areas down to the millimeter range.[2] There are two ways highlighting and extracting the cracks

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The 270 ° scanner moves autonomously over horizontal surfaces, generating a digital environmental map.[3] This map contains a common coordinate system where every data package is saved with the exact position. The map can be used for a detailed picture or evaluation model in order to predict the lifecycle costs or construction measures.[3]

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Illustration 1 "BETOSCAN - an instrumented mobile

robot system for the diagnosis

of reinforced concrete Floors"


4.3 RABIT

The autonomous robot RABIT was designed to detect reinforcing corrosion, delamination and decreased concrete quality on bridges roadway slaps.[3]  RABIT provides sensors for radar, ultrasonic surface waves, impact echo and electrical resistance measurement. The RABIT moves completely autonomous over the surface, due to a Global Positioning System (GPS). A software for online data analysis and data fusion generates a map where all the damaged spots are collected.[1] The visualization software presents all information in a common three-dimensional space in order to mark the different degrees of damage. [1]

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4.4 Ground penetration radar and development of a 3D model

The Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) measurements can be used to create a 3D visualization.[5] In order to create a 3D Representation out of the analyzed georadar data it is first converted into a JPG file with georeferences. Those Layers with height information where transferred to Polylines. This polylines where transformed to a 3D point cloud. This cloud is converted to a mesh generation, which leads to a 3D visualization.[5]

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